1 there + be
- We use theres is/there are to say that something exists, often when we talk about it for the first time:
There’s an interesting skyscraper in New York.
There are several good restaurants near where we live.
- We can use there + a form of be in most tenses and forms:
There used to be a pos office here.
- We use there is, not there + are, with a list that starts with a singular noun:
There’s a pen, a ruler and some pencils on each desk.
2 there and it
- There introduces new information; but we use it to say more about the information:
There’s a new cinema in town. It’s got six screens.
- We don’t use it to say something exists:
It’s a sauna and a small gym in the hotel. There’s a sauna and a small gym in the hotel.
3 it as a subject
We use it as a subject in expressions for:
- time: What time is it? It’s ten o’clock. How long did it take? It only took five minutes.
- days and dates: What day is it? It’s 10th November.
- distances: It’s only 25km to Valencia.
- weather + verb: It’s snowing. It’s really hot here.
- BUT + noun: There was a lot of rain on holiday.
- identifying people: Hi, it’s Ginny here. It’s Malcolm at the door.
- descriptions: It’s boring here. It was a difficult time in my life.
note: Although it has no real meaning in theses sentences, we can’t leave it out!!
4 it + be+ adjective/noun + infinitive with to
We can use this pattern to describe how we feel about a situation:
- It’s nice to see you
- It wasn’t possible to get tickets for Saturday.
- It has been a pleasure to meet your family.